Versnel's contribution from the Dutch original. For further examples of the formula and similar wishes, see Robert 1978, 263-64. The Agonistic Context of Early Greek Binding Spells 21 Notes I should like to thank E. Here and in the case of the binding curses found at Hadrumetum against charioteers and those found at Carthage against venatores discussed below my separation of Greek and Latin texts found at the same place and dating to the same period is admittedly artificial, since they are all the product of the same social environment. The Greek idea of a love spell was to A compilation of academic essays on Greek magic, highlighting everything from curse tablets to the Magical Papyri to the argument of religion as magic or magic as religion etc.
For the relation of the moon with the underworld, see for example W. The anonymity of the defigens and the hidden nature of the curse could also be governed by the relative social or political positions of the man and his victim. In reaction to a paper I gave in Paris in April 1985 on this subject, Patrick Le Roux informed me that in a well in Baelo, Spain a lead tablet was found in 1970 showing a clear relation to the one just cited. No allusions to the failure of human justice are found in the funerary imprecations, cf. Speyer 1969, 1167, 1201-03; Vallois 1914, 267-69; Crawley 1911, 369. Gerner, Z5av61 1941 : 237-43, 247-48; J.
For commentary on the gods, see ibid. The only possible exceptions, namely the Erinyes, have in the period of the defixiones generally become daemonic Furies. Audollent includes Latin defixiones in his corpus, but since they are derived directly or indirectly from the Greek practice and develop their own unique characteristics, I shall not deal with them in this essay. The goddess will claim them back exactura from the names listed below. On the use of lead for daily correspondence, lists of cavalry, oracle requests, and other purposes, see n. Frisch, Die Inschriften von Parian Bonn, 1983 , no. See, on these texts, Versnel 1985, 259ff.
Several offer some further interesting details. However, those who follow reconstructionist traditions Runic, Reconstrictionist Celtic, Reconstructionist Greek, etc will find substantial important material which can be useful either directly or for comparative studies. Seaver, University of Kansas, History, Summer 1992. See the bibliography given by I. Little has shown that the anathema was frequently used in this period, during which the Carolingian rulers were weak and unable to give military or judicial help to the injured. Like any proper Greek prayer, these tablets begin with an invocation of a particular chthonic god who is addressed directly in the second person.
Lattimore Although it can be argued that this particular race was neither fair nor sportsmanlike, it is interesting that Pelops demands both the restraint of his rival and at the same time an enhancement of his own ability to win. According to a common belief the gods are really embodied in their representations. Here the second great influence on the funerary imprecations, the oriental tradition, becomes manifest. Nor is this negative attitude toward malevolent magic restricted to philosophers such as Plato11 or to official legislation such as the Laws of the Twelve Tables at Rome, which explicitly forbade incantation for harmful purposes followed by many laws in the imperial period that outlawed magic. All three date to the first half of i. The involvement of the gods or the daemons in the action seems to be a result of an evolution that though the first attestations already date from the fifth century B.
Jordan 1988 provides the best and most recent assessment of the archaeological evidence. One might see some kind of political competition in the curses against discussed above. The gods of the underworld may have been chosen because the dead, having departed from the world of the living, belonged to the realm of the chthonic gods. Egger, 6 Jh 35 1943 : 108-10. This is a collection of essays by leading American and European scholars.
Newton, A History of Discoveries at Halicarnassus, Cnidus, andBranchidae, vol. Versnel Leiden, 1981 , 177-78; F. Kagarow 1929, 50-55 described five types, adding phylacteries written on lead. Strubbe 1983, 266 with bibliography in n. For a survey of more recently published Latin defixiones, M.
We know that in some cities there existed a v or dc law concerning violation of the grave or impiety , for example, at Olympus in Lycia; cf. Winkler for theircomments and advice on earlier drafts of this essay and to claim as my own all of the deficiencies that may remain. As soon as the prohibition against the grave violation is transgressed, the punishment will automatically occur. Dodd Initiation in Ancient Greek Rituals and Narratives: New Critical Perspectives 2003 ; and with Laura McClure , Prostitutes and Courtesans in the Ancient World 2006. One of them we have already cited under the prayers for revenge: 132 Although this does not prove my interpretation, I believe it does show that such a reading is possible and indeed—in the context of judicial prayers—more plausible than what has been previously suggested. For a similar usage in the funerary imprecations, see Strubbe's essay chap. For all enquiries, please contact Herb Tandree Philosophy Books directly - customer service is our primary goal.
It appears that in these regions people had a choice of options when it came to interacting with the supernatural; the fact that in the case of a justified complaint they so often opted for the deferential judicial prayer instead of the traditional defixio speaks volumes about their belief in divine power and its direct involvement in human affairs. Moraux 1959, 11, lines 16-18 with commentary on pp. Magie, Roman Rule in Asia Minor to the End of the Third Century after Christ Princeton, 1950 , 415. Failure of human efforts is a topos in reports of divine healing miracles; see O. With the exception of the so-called Sethianorum tabellae55 from Rome, they are to be found exclusively in North Africa and Syria. In this translation I have tried to preserve the faulty syntax of the Greek, which provides a good example of the deficient and often somewhat breathless language characteristic of many of these texts.