Gosden, The Evolution of A Profession, Oxford, Blackwell, 1972; H. The giving and taking of evidence The appearance of the women elementary teachers before the Commission must have been a memorable experience for them, both personally and professionally. At Bedford, Miss Mary Ewart and Miss Eleanor Smith, both with wider links to reform of female education, worked alongside three local women, Mrs Sophia Higgins, Mrs Kilpin and Mrs Emma Matilda Hillier, as well as members of the local aristocracy. Bodichon, Reasons for the Enfranchisement of Women, London, 1866. Both Ruth Homan and Hilda Miall-Smith were politically very well connected.
Jones, The Training of Teachers in England and Wales: A Critical Survey, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1924; R. Copeland, The Making of the Backward Pupil in Education in England, 1870—1914, London, Woburn, 1999, p. Burstall, The Story of the Manchester High School for Girls, 1871—1911, p. Ideally, she would have preferred the bulk of centre staff to be made up of teachers with experience of university work and higher- or middle-school teaching. Honorary secretaries were often women: at Manchester Miss Kennedy, Matilda Vernon, Matilda Roby for twelve years , Mary Tout and Rachel Scott for the Prep School; while at Clifton, Catherine Winkworth and Mr Pope held the position of honorary secretary jointly.
In Manchester this was based on new forms of civic government, while Liverpool drew on older traditions of voluntary management. In 1910 she became an assistant mistress at Barnsley High School. In revealing the diversity of African womens activism, the underlying issues around which womens social change work develops, and the impact that work has on individuals and communities, this volume has significance for women and men throughout the world. Women centre teachers had to demonstrate their ability to withstand the rigorous practical demands of centre teaching: the long hours, hard work, constant contact with students, and a willingness to participate in extra-curricular activities. Edmonds, The School Inspector, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1962, p. Women and Education is situated within the tradition of feminist engagements with recovering and reclaiming 'forgotten' female figures in history.
The women elementary school teachers who appeared before the Cross Commission had substantial experience in education. In many ways it could be argued that these extra-curricular activities, in which friendships were built up with other teachers and students, provided a certain way of life with valuable intellectual and cultural rewards for the women who had risen through the ranks of the elementary teaching profession. Employing a biographical approach, Jane Martin and Joyce Goodman adopt existing feminist and historical models to explore how these women resisted gender roles and combined their public lives with private commitments. Those pupil teachers who failed to enter training college continued teaching in an uncertificated capacity. The Council governing the High School was to consist of not less than fifteen members who were to be drawn from the trustees. . Unlike Westlake, who was a party woman, Fenwick Miller, Surr and Taylor clung to their independence and refused to be drawn in to the dominant masculinist codes.
First was the view that the centres, in order to support a high level of culture and an atmosphere of learning, should be staffed mainly by secondary-trained and university-educated staff. Offering a new perspective on the professional and political role of women, this book represents essential reading for anybody with an interest in gender studies or the social and political history of England in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. What is evident from the high failure rate of this new type of centre teacher, however, is that from the perspective of the centres they were unsuited to the work. The former are defined as Radicals because they demonstrate a capacity to understand the lives of the poor and a willingness to adopt an independent line. Scott, at the Guardian offices from early evening until the early hours of the morning. Alberti, Beyond Suffrage, Feminists in War and Peace, 1914—28, London, Macmillan, 1989, p. Cappe, Observations on Charity Schools, Female Friendly Societies and Other Subjects Connected with the Views of the Ladies Committee, London, Johnson, 1805, p.
Fletcher, Feminists and Bureaucrats, pp. While this suggests a limited scope for women managers to develop policy, as Vicinus argues, women brought to bear on their work in local schools the particular philanthropic and political beliefs developed through other work. Contrary to the Board regulations these appointments were not submitted to the full Board for confirmation. Educational administration provided opportunities for getting attention, enabling a small group of generally wealthy and wellconnected women to promote their participation in local affairs and extend 80 Jane Martin their general influence. Using interdisciplinary feminist and activist approaches these essays explore individual and collective actions undertaken by African women in cultural, social, economic, historical and political contexts. By the time they gave evidence to the 1898 Committee, both Mrs Bannister and Miss Joyce had already secured important positions of responsibility within the centre world as centre principals. Her French mistress particularly stood out in her memories, as did Miss Sweeney, a teacher who organised and ran a drama group and inspired the students to study and perform plays.
Their influence was particularly evident in the recommendations of one of the Minority Reports, where several of the women were mentioned by name. Ozga, Women in Educational Management, Buckingham, Open University Press, 1993, pp. Conclusion Tracing the academic and professional qualifications, career profiles, commitment and broader cultural activities of late nineteenth-century women pupil-teacher centre teachers demonstrates that centre teaching offered bright, ambitious women an important means for developing independent and autonomous careers. The Ladies making up the account of the money expended in building and furnishing the House…are concerned to find, that owing to the increased price of labour and of Timber and other materials, though procured upon reasonable terms, the expenses they have unavoidably incurred, considerably exceed the money collected and received for the above purpose. The school-board women gained access to the middle level of educational policy-making, which lay between government policy and educational practice.
The role of women in policy-making has been largely neglected in conventional social and political histories. The twenty-nine women who served on the board were working in a maledominated bureaucracy where the organisational practices, prevailing culture and underpinning ideology were all masculinist. She and Florence Fenwick Miller also protested in the national press against the exclusion of women. Forster in 1870 to press for the appointment of women to the Inspectorate. Dyhouse, Girls Growing Up in Late Victorian and Edwardian England, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1987, p.
This chapter shows clearly that, although the women inspectors were well qualified, highly motivated, and contributed in important ways to the work of the inspectorate, their impact was highly constrained. Several issues relate to questions of national identities. While the gender make-up and responsibilities in the early years of governorship of schools are usually clear, patterns as the schools developed are much more difficult to establish from existing records. They were to recommend appointments to the School Management Committee and to check registers and requisitions for books, apparatus, and stationery. The Education Bill wants the London County Council to take the place of the School Board. Comradeship and Wheatsheaf, December 1901. The 1880 Trust Deed was expressed in terms of the legal and civic rights of women.